Printing from original film stock which has been conformed
into two rolls with alternating shots and black opaque leader.
This methodology will eliminate any potential splice marks
from showing up on prints and permits the incorporation of
optical effects and titles. (Film Editing)
A/B Rolls: Two
or more rolls of film having alternate scenes intercut with
opaque leaders in such a way that the 'A' roll presents its
picture at the same time that the 'B' roll presents opaque
leader, and vice versa. (Film Editing)
Above the Line:
Refers to the creative elements of a production such as the
writer, producer, director and actors. Literally, these are
the elements which appeared above a bold line which divided
standard production budget sheets. (Production)
Current. An electric current with periodically changing polarity
(i.e. 60 times a second for 60Hz power). (Electricity)
Accent Light: A
light unit that emphasizes one subject. This might be a key
light, a kicker, or a backlight. (Lighting)
Acetate Base: The
tranparent cellulose acetate plastic film which for years
served as the backing for magnetic recording tape. (Sound
Acetone: An organic
liquid chemical used in the manufacture of some types of film
cement. Also used to clean film splicing equipment. (Film
science of the transmission of sound waves. Generally refers
to the characteristics of auditoriums, theatres and studios
with respect to their design.
The cutting of film from one shot to another in a way yielding
the impression that action is continuous and uninterrupted.
Converter. An electronic device used at the input of digital
audio equipment to convert analog electrical signals to digital
values whose numbers represent the level and frequency information
contained in the original analog signal. (Sound)
Dialog Replacement. Also known as "looping." A process
of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with
A control/timing track on the edge of videotape which contains
control data for quick and accurate location of program material.
Aerial Shot: An
extremely high angle view of a subject usually taken from
a crane or a high stationary camera position, but may also
refer to a shot taken from an actual airplane or helicopter.
Aliasing: An undesirable
distortion component that can arise in any digitally encoded
information (sound or picture).
General, nondirectional, room light. (Lighting)
The total sound in a given are which is peculiar to that space
(room tone). (Post Production)
strength of an electronic signal as measure by its waveform
The nonlinear relation of input and output induced harmonics
which is a function of voltage
fluctuations or power consumption. (Acoustics)
Analog: An electrical
signal that continuously varies in strength as related to
some form of input.
A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal
is a physical representation of
the waveform of the original signal.
optical system having different magnifications in the horizontal
and vertical dimensions of the image.
Angle of View:
This is the size of the field covered by a lens, measured
in degrees. However, because of the aperture masks in film,
the angle of view for a given lens is generally described
in terms of the height and width of a lens. (Cinematography).
Answer Print: The
first print combining picture and sound which is submitted
by the laboratory for the customer's approval. (Laboratory)
Filtering of erroneous frequencies that are created during
the analog to digital conversion process. (Sound/Picture)
Aperture: A variable
opening inside a lens that regulates the amount of light reaching
the image plane. Also known as an iris. (Camera/Lighting)
Apple Box: A box
build of a strong wood or plywood which is capable of supporting
weight. These may be of various sizes, the smallest of which
is also known as a 'pancake' because it is nearly flat. (Lighting/Grip)
Arc: A lighting
unit that generates illumination from an electrical arc between
two carbon electrodes. (Lighting)
Aspect Ratio: The
proportion of picture width to height (1.33:1, 1.66:1, 1.85:1
(Hiss) Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the
surface of a recording medium (tape). (Sound)
ASA: The exposure
index or speed rating of a film which denotes the film's sensitivity.
Assemble: The work
of organizing and joining the shots of a film in the sequence
in which they will appear in the finished print. (Film Editing)
This is normally the person who acts as the liason between
a production company and the various personnel involved in
the post production process.
The juxtaposition of shots in order to present contrast, comparisons
or ideas. (Film Editing)
Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely
synchronized with the action.
who are staged and photographed to portray normal human traffic
needed to add detail in various script situations. (Production)
Attenuate: To reduce
a signal's strength.
When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies
between 20 and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent
to the average human. (Acoustics)
A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers
and a visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to
an audio recorder.
A-Wind: An indication
of the emulsion position on a roll of film. An 'A' wind is
a roll with the emulsion facing the center of the roll. (Film